The relationship between magnesium and diabetes

Magnesium is a vital nutrient for the body’s health because it functions as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes and is involved in various processes, including the synthesis of central nervous system neurotransmitters and the production and release of cellular energy.

Magnesium also regulates major biological processes, such as muscle contraction, clotting, heart rate and blood pressure. Some scientific research studies have emphasized the importance of magnesium in carbohydrate metabolism and management of diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects.

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The total amount of magnesium in the body (Mg2+) fluctuates between 20 and 28 g, with more than 99% contained in the intracellular space, mainly in the bones (50-65%), where, with calcium and phosphorus, they contribute to the formation of the skeleton, but also in the muscles. , soft tissues and organs (34-39%), and less than 1-2% found in blood and extracellular fluids.

Green leafy vegetables, legumes, cereals and bananas are foods rich in magnesium.

The lack of this mineral causes an increase in muscle excitability, which causes cramps, headaches, physical and mental fatigue, irritability and insomnia.

Magnesium absorption

About 20-80% of dietary magnesium is absorbed in the small intestine, especially in some parts of the duodenum and ileum, with only a small percentage absorbed in the large intestine. Absorption occurs through two different mechanisms. The passive mechanism depends on the concentration gradient established between the intestine and the blood circulation; this type of absorption occurs by paracellular, via tight junctions between enterocytes.

The active mechanism occurs through a transcellular pathway through specific transporters known as TRPM6/7 (transient receptor potential melastatin 6/7), which allow magnesium to flow from the apical to the basolateral side of the intestinal cell (enterocyte) and then in the blood.

Only 30-40% of the total amount of magnesium incorporated in the diet is absorbed by the human body.

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Magnesium and diabetes

Maintaining a stable concentration of magnesium appears to be an essential requirement for carbohydrate metabolism. It should be noted that some scientific research studies have found a strong correlation between magnesium deficiency in the blood (hypomagnesemia) and the presence of diabetes mellitus type 2, a chronic disease characterized by a high level of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia ) for a skewed or skewed amount. function of the hormone insulin.

Plasma magnesium levels are determined mainly by four processes: magnesium intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion and mineral redistribution in the body. Aside from dietary deficiencies that can lead to magnesium deficiency, there is scientific evidence that the mechanisms of transit and gastrointestinal absorption of the mineral are severely compromised in people with type 2 diabetes.

Current evidence suggests that the state of hyperglycemia, which is distinctive of the diabetic pathology, and the resulting osmotic diuresis, impacts the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb magnesium, which is otherwise eliminated with urine (hypermagnesuria).

Decreased body levels of magnesium have been linked to complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and lower limb ulcers.

Magnesium levels in diabetics must be monitored continuously because, in addition to the problems, these patients often receive drug therapies such as diuretics and gastroprotectors (proton pump inhibitors), whose negative impacts cause a decrease in magnesium in the body.

As a result, following a healthy and balanced diet can help diabetics with hypomagnesemia to restore the proper level of magnesium in the body. If the diet fails, they may be able to recover this deficiency by trying to take specific food supplements.

Ultra Mag®

The vital difference is that not all supplements on the market have the same type of magnesium. Magnesium can be found in a variety of salts.

  • Organic (such as magnesium pidulate)
  • Inorganic (such as magnesium oxide)
  • Chelates (such as magnesium bisglycinate)

Among these, magnesium oxide (MgO) has the highest elemental magnesium content, although its absorption by the body is extremely limited.

To solve this problem, PharmaNutra SpA has developed Ultra Mag®a dietary supplement based on magnesium oxide that employs Sucrosomial® technology, in which the mineral is transmitted by sucrosome®a matrix composed of phospholipids and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucresters).

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This new structure allows magnesium to be absorbed in greater quantities by the human body without interfering with its traditional absorption path.

When a healthy and balanced diet is considered inadequate, UltraMag® Consumption can be a viable solution to restore the right amount of magnesium in the body.

The dose of magnesium oxide in UltraMag® is 375 mg, which corresponds to 100% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Therefore, taking one sachet per day, dissolved in a glass of water, is recommended at any time of the day.

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  1. Mooren FC (2015) Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 17, pp. 813-823.
  2. PT Pham. (2014) Hypomagnesemia: a clinical perspective. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis., 9(7) pp. 219-230.
  3. Study Kirsten E Peters. (2013) The relationship between hypomagnesaemia, metformin therapy and cardiovascular disease complicating type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. PLoS One, 8(9), p. e74355.
  4. Fiorentini D., et al. (2021) Magnesium: Biochemistry, Nutrition, Detection, and Social Impact of Diseases Linked to its Deficiency. Nutrients, 13(4), p. 1136.

About PharmaNutra Spa

Founded and led by President Andrea Lacorte and Vice President Roberto Lacorte, PharmaNutra was established in 2003.

It develops unique nutritional supplements and innovative medical devices, handling the entire production process, from the proprietary raw material to the finished product.

The effectiveness of its products is documented by considerable scientific evidence, including 112 publications.

The Group distributes and sells its products in Italy and abroad. In Italy, the products are sold through a network of 150 Pharmaceutical Representatives who serve doctors and also exclusively sell PharmaNutra products to pharmacies throughout Italy. The products are sold in more than 50 countries abroad, through 39 partners chosen from among the best pharmaceutical companies. PharmaNutra leads the market in the production of nutritional supplements based on iron under the SiderAL® brand, where it boasts a number of important patents on Sucrosomial® technology

Over the years, the Group has developed a precise strategy for the management and production of intellectual property, based on the integrated management of all the various elements: proprietary raw materials, patents, brands and clinical evidence.

Posted on March 10, 2023


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